THE GREAT WAR HAS ENDED: At last the dawn breaks and the whole country comes alive

THE WORD ‘VICTORY’, IN GREAT ELECTRIC LETTERS, WAS FLASHED ACROSS THE FRONT OF THE HERALD 0FFICE. THE NEWS HAD SPREAD RAPIDLY. THEN, BY MID-MORNING, THE WHOLE COUNTRY HAD BURST ALIVE TO CELEBRATE.

Adapted by FRANK MORRIS

CHEERS!: MARTIN PLACE WAS THE STARTING POINT FOR THE GREAT CELEBRATIONS. Below: THE ARMISTICE IS SIGNED. BELOW: BILLY HUGHES CONSCRIPTIONS WERE BEATEN.

On November 11, 1918, the war has ended.

The news reached our shore early last evening. Germany had submitted to the Allies’ terms and signed the armistice. The war was over.

The information, transmitted through the State Department in Washington, reached the offices of the Herald at seven o’clock. A few minutes later an extraordinary edition was being sold in the streets and the word ‘Victory’ in great electric letters was flashed into being across the front of the Herald office.

(Nearly all newspapers in Australia, Britain and America, for example, would have done something similar. At the end of five years of war, it’s amazing what brings on these super-human tasks. –FM.)

By 7.30 the news was spreading rapidly. By 7.45 steam whistles on ferries and locomotives were in full blast; the whole city began to stir. Even in the smallest and most distant suburbs, people commenced to gather in little knots and discuss the news.

Then, suddenly, from cottage and mansion, flat and lodging, everyone who could walk turned an eager face towards the city. Never in the history of Sydney did a greater flood of passengers flow over the evening service of trams, trains and ferries.

WILD, UNRESTRANED JOY

Every-man, woman and child came into the city to “celebrate”, but they came in such numbers ... At nine o’clock, in Martin Place and Moore Street, and in Pitt and George Streets adjoining, the crowds were so dense that no one could move. They could only stand and cheer.

But in the surrounding streets, where it was possible to move, old and young let themselves go, and there were witnessed scenes of wild and unrestrained joy.

The crowds armed themselves with two varieties of articles considered indispensable – flags and noise-makers. The former added to the picturesqueness of the scene, the latter made existence nearly unendurable.

But nobody cared.

SHOWERED WITH CONFETTI

The realisation that the most terrible war of all history was over, that the Allies were completely triumphant, that the menace of Prussianism was swept away, that peace was once more to come to the earth after four years of horror – this did not come to every mind.

Perhaps, but on every face, there was gladness, relief, satisfaction. Perhaps, no incidents were more striking than the enthusiasm that men in khaki, and those wearing returned soldiers badges, were greeted. All were hailed with expressions of gratitude and showered with confetti.

“I know of no words adequate for such an occasion,” said the Premier, Mr Watt. “The long night of suffering and anguish has ended. There will go up from the hearts of the people of Australia a great sigh of relief that dawn has come.

“”The first impulse of a Christian nation … is to thank God for the triumph of right against the demoniac designs of the enemy.”

<< Sydney Morning Herald, November 12, 1918; Frank Morris.

CHRISTCHURCH CHEERS ON: THERE’S NOTHING THAT SOUNDS MORE CHEERFUL THAN 100,000 CITIZENS JOINING IN WITH EVERY TOWN AND VILLAGE OF NEW ZEALAND.


THE GREAT WAR HAS ENDED: Troops praised for their braveness and courage to annihilate Turkish armies

THEIR GALLANTRY AND DETERMINATION MEANT TOTAL DESTUCTION OF THOSE WHO OPPOSED US.

FRANK MORRIS

IMAGE IN GLASS: A SPECIAL MEMO WAS SENT TO OUT TO ALL TROOPS FOR THEIR GALLANTRY AND THEIR DEFEAT OF THE VIIth and VIIIth TURKISH ARMIES. THIS COPY, AN ORINGALS, IS OWNED BY FRANK MORRIS.

On September 26, 1918, General Allenby sent his gallant forces a specially signed memo which amplified his “total thanks” for the role they played in the defeat of the Turkish Armies.

It reads:

“I desire to convey to all ranks and all arms of the Force under my command, my admiration and thanks for their great deeds of the past week, and my appreciation of their gallantry and determination, which have resulted in the total destruction of the V11th and V111th Turkish Armies opposed to us.

“Such a complete victory has seldom been known in all the history of war.”

General Allenby

26TH September, 1918.


THE GREAT WAR HAS ENDED: Brothers in arms and a war of words…

BRASS HAT, STANDING: “THINGS PRETTY QUIET TODAY, EH? THE CANDID DIGGER: “YAIR, WHAT WITH THE BIRDS SINGIN’ AND YOU BLOKES STROLLIN’ AROUND, A MAN’D HARDLY KNOW THERE WUS A WAR GOING ON!” Frank Dunne, Smith’s Weekly.

THE SERIOUS SIDE …

ON NOVEMBER 11, 1918 WAR ENDS, LEAVING A COUNTRY IN MOURNING. GUNS OF WAR WERE FINALLY SILENT. EUPHORIC SCENES IN AUSTRALIA CELEBRATED THE ARMISTICE – BUT FOR TENTERFIELD’S CAPTAIN WOODWARD. NOVEMBER 11 WAS MORE SOBERING. HE WROTE: “THE OUTWARD MANIFESTATION OF JOY WHICH COULD BE EXPECTED … WAS ABSENT. WE WERE AS MEN WHO HAD COMPLETED A TASK WHICH WAS ABHORRENT TO US. THE OCCASION CALLED FOR THANKSGIVING. IT WAS … TOO GREAT FOR WORDS.”

AUSTRALIA’S FIRST SHOT FIRED

A GERMAN STEAMER, AFTER DISCHARGING CARGO AT MELBOURNE, ATTEMPTED TO PASS OUT THROUGH THE HEADS TO SYDNEY. SHE HAD HER CLEARANCES, BUT THOSE ON BOARD DID NOT KNOW THAT WAR HAD BEEN DECLARED BEWEEN GREAT BRITAIN AND GERMANY. A SHOT WAS FIRED FROM THE CLIFF FACE. THE VESSEL WAS IMMEDIATELY STOPPED AND RETURNED TO WILLIAMSTOWN.    .


THE GREAT WAR HAS ENDED: Milestones shows some of the battles fought in WW1

CAR RIDE: THE ARCHDUKE FERDINAND AND HIS WIFE WERE SHOT DEAD BY A SERBIAN NATIONALIST. Below: WORLD WAR IS OVER, SHOUTED THE AMERICAN DAILY TELEGRAPH. Below: THE WAR ISSUE OF THE SYDNEY MAIL.

1914

Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir to throne of Austria-Hungary, shot dead by a Serbian nationionalist in Sarajevo.

A series of ultimatums leads to declarations of war between Europe’s great powers.

Australian make a pledge to Britain.

Australia quickly pledges its support for Britain and enters the war. Labor leader Andrew Fisher utters his famous promise to defend Britain “to our last men and our last shilling.” By the end of 1914, 52,561 volunteers have passed medicals to serve overseas.

First Australians die.

A skirmish in the German colony of New Guinea, Bitapaka, with Melanesian and German troops results in six Australians killed – the first of over 60,000 Australian soldiers to fall in WW1.

1915

Aussie sub sunk.

The only surviving Australian submarine, AE-2, was scuttled by her crew on April 30. The sub received severe damage incurred in her forcing of the Dardanelles.

Gallipoli begins.

Australian and New Zealand troops land at Anzac Cove near the Gallipoli Peninsula. The craggy terrain was easily defended by the Turks. Nevertheless, the Anzacs gained a toehold; but made little progress over the next eight months.

Lone Pine versus the Turks.

The 1st Division launches an attack on the Turkish positions. So fierce was the fighting that 1st and 3rd brigades suffer 2277 casualties between them.

A futile charge.

On foot, Australian Light Horsemen charge the Turkish trenches against machine guns and rifle fire. Over 230 of the 8th and 10th Light Horse regiment are killed and 140 wounded.

Evacuation of Gallipoli.

Gallipoli’s evacuation proved to be the most successful operation of the campaign. The Anzac Cove campaign led to 26,000 Australian casualties, including 8000 killed in action or dying of wounds or disease.

1916

Travelling Australians.

During the year, Australian troops took part in operations in Egypt, Palestine and Syria. Four infantry divisions were also sent to France to the Somme.

Battle of Fromelles.

Australian troops took part in their first big Western Front engagement at Fromelles on July 19. Seven days later, they went into battle at Pozieres.

Gov’ment twice beaten.

The war had deeply divided Australia. Prime Minister Billy Hughes had attempted to win a referendum on conscription. Twice he was defeated. On October 28, the first proposal for conscription was defeated 1,087, 557 votes to 1,160,033.

1917

Australia gets Flying Corp.

The Australian Flying Corp began operations in France and Palestine. On October 31, Beersheba was attacked, this triggering the third battle of Gaza. On December 20, the conscription referendum was again defeated.

1918

Monash takes it to them.

Five Australian divisions in France were formed into an army on January 1 under the command of Sir John Monash. On July 4, Hamel, an enemy stronghold in France, was captured by Australian troops. On September 18, the Hinderburg Line on the Western Front was captured. On September 30, more than 4000 Turkish troops were captured in action near Damascus, ending the war in Palestine.

War is over.

Germany surrenders on November 11 and the war was officially over. By the war’s end, 61,512 Australians have been killed or die from wounds or disease. Another 152,000 are wounded.

<< The Sun-Herald, The Land, Frank Morris.


MELBOURNE CUP 1918: Night Watch was to strengthen speed for the run home

Adapted by FRANK MORRIS

SPECIAL DAY: ON THAT AFTERNOON, THE WEATHER WAS SUPERB.

On November 5, the 1918 Melbourne Cup was run less than a week before the war had ended. The newspapers said it to be the biggest and most light-hearted gathering at Flemington for more the four years. The crowd needed to be in good humour.

The Derby Day nor Cup Day, without a single favourite being mentioned, meant a disaster all around.

Although the favourite for the big one was King Offa, trainer Dick Bradfield had a ‘saver’ -- his name was Night Watch.

This was mainly because he had finished second in the Hotham Handicap on Derby Day. Night Watch was down at the end of the scale. He was handicapped the minimum of 6.7 and carrying two pounds overweight. In the hands of Billy Duncan, the jockey, took Night Watch to the lead six furlongs from home.               

MISSED HIS CHANCE

On the turn Daius moved up to join him at the half-mile … and the imported horse, Gadabout, snatched the lead from both of them. At this point, Night Watch was interfered with and seemed to have missed his chance.

Metropolitan winner, Kennaquhair, who got in front a furlong out, was called the winner. But the steely Night Watch came again, and with his light-weight was able to outstay his rival to win by half a length from Kennaquhair with Gadabout sticking on well for third.

Night Watch put up a new Cup record by running the two miles in 3.25 3/4.

<< The Melbourne Cup 1861-1982; Maurice Cavanough; Currey O”Neil, 1960.

Posted in: Grand Years with Frank Morris at 09 November 18

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